Egg butter is the yolk extract of pheasant chicken eggs, which mainly contains lecithin, fatty acids, gallstone alcohol, folic acid, carotene and other ingredients.
How to extract egg butter
In the traditional sense, the extraction process of egg butter is dry distillation, that is, frying. In modern research, there are baking method, vacuum distillation method, enzymatic hydrolysis method, organic solvent method, ultrasonic method and supercritical CO2 extraction method in the extraction of egg butter.
Comparison of extraction methods
Among them, dry distillation, baking, and vacuum distillation all require high temperature processing. The prepared egg butter is easy to produce carcinogens, and the oil has poor color and odor; although the enzymatic hydrolysis method makes the total lipid extraction rate high, and is well separated Triglycerides and phospholipids, but the content of fatty acids is high; indicating that the above processing methods have deficiencies.
Both the ethanol percolation method and the ethanol ultrasonic extraction method can only extract egg yolk lecithin and a small part of egg butter; the yield of egg butter is very high in the supercritical CO2 extraction method, but lecithin is almost undetectable in egg butter.
Supercritical CO2 extraction method of egg butter
The supercritical CO2 extraction process is based on a single factor experiment. The extraction temperature is set to 50, and the water content of egg yolk powder is W5%. The extraction pressure, extraction time and CO2 flow rate are selected. The yield of egg butter is the evaluation index. The egg butter extraction process is optimized through orthogonal experiment. Considering the comprehensive production cost, the optimal process conditions are determined: that is, the supercritical CO2 extraction pressure is 35MPa, the extraction time is 2h, and the temperature is 50°C.
Extraction of Lecithin from Egg Yolk
The results showed that both the ethanol percolation method and the ethanol ultrasonic extraction method can only extract lecithin and a small part of egg butter (the egg butter yield is 25%), and most of the egg butter that is insoluble in ethanol remains in the residue (the residual egg butter extraction yield 35%);
When supercritical CO2 extraction is used, the yield of egg butter is greatly improved (40% of egg butter), but the lecithin remains in the egg yolk powder, and the lecithin is almost undetectable in the egg butter.
The egg butter prepared by the traditional method, the egg butter extracted by supercritical CO2, and the lecithin extracted by the ethanol extraction method after supercritical CO2 extraction are used.
Supercritical CO2 extracted egg butter combined with lecithin extracted from its medicinal residues for pharmacological experiments. The results show that the above extracts have a clear therapeutic effect on scalded animal models, but the supercritical CO2 extracted egg butter combined with the eggs extracted from the medicinal residue Phospholipids have the best effect.
Moreover, the egg butter extracted by supercritical CO2 has the characteristics of no residue, no pollution, non-high temperature, low energy consumption, etc., which is an effective method for extracting egg butter.
The ethanol extraction method has a low oil yield, but the lecithin content is high, the quality is good, and there is no solvent residue, which just makes up for the shortcomings of the small amount of lecithin during supercritical CO2 extraction. It is proved that the combined process of supercritical extraction and ethanol extraction can extract egg butter and lecithin more effectively and reduce the waste of resources.