Pepper Seed Oil
Pepper ash is a Ruta family, native to China and is widely distributed in China.
The main areas are Shaanxi (Hancheng), Sichuan, Shandong (Tai’an, Yiyuan County), Shanxi, Henan, Hebei and other places.
Zanthoxylum bungeanum fruit and leaves contain a large number of aromatic components and essential oils, which is one of the traditional eight ingredients in China.
Pepper seed oil oil is rich in fatty acids, including palmitic acid (palmitic acid), stearic acid, palmitic oleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and a trace of arachidonic acid.
The Hitachi 663230 gas chromatograph has proved that the main composition of fatty acids in Zanthoxylum zanthoxylum seed oil is oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid (its total amount is up to 57.549 to 87.907), followed by low content of palmitic acid, stearic acid and palmitoleic acid, and the trace component contains seventeen enoic acids.
Extraction methods of pepper oil
The extraction methods of traditional Chinese prickly ash seed oil include solvent extraction and distillation.
Mothed of solvent extraction
Solvent extraction is separated by the difference of the affinity between the solvent and the solutes (the solubility of the solutes), which is separated by the difference of the volatilization (vapor pressure) of the components in the solution.
Mothed of supercritical CO2 extraction
The supercritical CO2 extraction is separated by controlling the two parameters of solubility and steam pressure by regulating the pressure and temperature of CO2, so the supercritical CO2 extraction combines the functions and characteristics of solvent extraction and distillation.
The esterification products of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil obtained by various methods were analyzed by gas chromatography.
The type of the gas chromatograph is SHIMADZU GC-9A, the column type is PEG-20M (30M * 0.32 m m * 0.5 m).
Chromatographic conditions: N2 flow: 0.7Kg/cm3; H2 flow: 0.6Kg/cm3; air flow: 0.5Kg/cm3; gasifier temperature 250 degree C; column temperature 200 degree C (protection 4min, 8 degree C/min rising to 230 degree C, protection 12min); sample size 1 micron.
Supercritical CO2 extraction technology is an emerging extraction and separation technology in the food industry.
Compared with the traditional chemical solvent extraction method, supercritical CO2 extraction of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil has the advantages of no chemical solvent consumption and residue, no pollution, avoiding thermal degradation of the extract at high temperatures, and protecting the activity of physiologically active substances.
The optimal extraction conditions of pepper essential oil are: CO2 flow rate 22kg/h, extraction pressure 34MPa, extraction time 140min, extraction temperature 38℃. Under these conditions, the yield of black pepper essential oil is 7.02%.