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How are essential oils classified? 13 types of chemical aromatic molecules

After I had more and more essential oils in my hands, I began to think about how to classify these bottles. When I first played with essential oils, I read some books, but I didn’t understand the chemistry of essential oils at that time, I read these words: Terpenes, monoterpene alcohols, sesquiterpenes, etc., but have no idea what they meant.

13 types of chemical aromatic molecules
13 types of chemical aromatic molecules

In the beginning, I used the main categories of plants to classify them: fruity, trees, resinous roots, leaves, grasses, and flowers. These five categories are labeled with circular labels of different colors and attached to the essential oil bottle. , Put them in categories, and when looking for essential oils like this, it is actually very clear.

Later, there were more essential oils, and I found that they were only divided into these five categories, which could not meet my needs for finding essential oils. Sometimes I would like to use similar functions to find the same group of essential oils. Among the three types of grasses, their functions are often confused, and sometimes it is difficult to classify them because of different extraction parts. For example, tea trees are trees, but their extraction parts are needles, which should be placed in the leaves and grasses.

Extended reading: Essential Oil Preservation - What You Should Know About Essential Oils

It has been discovered recently that, just like there are various nutrients in food, essential oils are also composed of various chemical aroma molecules. The aroma molecules in essential oils are classified into different categories according to the main functional components so that the same type of essential oil can be found for more flexible use.

Today’s article is mainly aimed at “Classifying Essential Oils by Chemical Aromatic Molecules”, so I will sort out the essential oils under each chemical classification (there is no introduction to essential oils), so that you can classify them more clearly, organize them neatly, and more quickly Find the essential oil you need.

Monoterpenes

Monoterpene, the most common basic component in essential oil chemistry, has a small molecular weight and is insoluble in water. This type of essential oil is very common, and the number of essential oils is also the largest. The essential oils of Rutaceae are more acceptable to the general public.

Common essential oils:

Rutaceae

  1. Sweet Orange / Scientific name: Citrus sinensis
  2. Bitter Orange / Scientific name: Citrus aurantium
  3. Lemon / Scientific name: Citrus limonum
  4. Key Lime / Scientific name: Citrus × aurantirolia
  5. Grapefruit / Scientific name: Citrus × paradisi
  6. Mandarin ( red / green ) / Scientific name: Citrus reticulata
  7. Cape May / Scientific name: Colonema album

Paco

  1. Cypress / Scientific name: Cupressus sempervirens
  2. Mountain Juniper / Scientific name: Juniperus communis
  3. Juniper Berry / Scientific name: Juniperus communis

Pinco

  1. Black Spruce / Scientific name: Picea mariana
  2. Laricio Pine / Scientific name: Pinus nigra subsp. laricio
  3. Maritime Pine / Scientific name: Pinus pinaster
  4. European red pine
  5. Balsam Fir / Scientific name: Abies balsamea
  6. Silver Fir / Scientific name: Abies alba
  7. Siberian Fir / Scientific name: Abies sibirica
  8. Douglas Fir / Scientific name: Pseudostsuga menziesii

Umbelliferae

  1. Dill Herb / Scientific name: Anethum graveolens
  2. Angelica Root / Scientific name: Angelica archangelica
  3. Dahurian Angelica / Scientific name: Angelica dahurica
  4. Galbanum Gum / Scientific name: Ferula galbaniflua

Olive Branch

  1. Frankincense / Scientific name: Boswellia carterii
  2. Indian Frankincense / Scientific name: Boswellia serrata
  3. Brazilian Frankincense / Scientific name: Protium heptaphyllum
  4. Elemi / Scientific name: Canarium luzonicum

Other departments

  1. Cistus / Scientific name: Cistus ladaniferus
  2. Weeping forsythia / Scientific name: Forsythia suspensa
  3. Black Pepper / Scientific name: Piper nigrum
  4. Mastic / Scientific name: Pistacia lentiscus
  5. Iary / Scientific name: Psiadia altissima
  6. Rhododendron / Scientific name: Rhododendron anthopogon
  7. Vitex / scientific name: Vitex agnus castus
  8. Plai / Scientific name: Zingiber cassumunar

Sesquiterpenes

Sesquiterpene is located in the middle of the lipophilicity on the right in the four-quadrant essential oil chemical map of flangong. It belongs to the category of balancing the positive and negative electricity of the body.

common essential oils

Paco

  1. Blue Cypress / Scientific name: Callitris intratropica
  2. Meniki / Scientific name: Chamaecyparis formosensis
  3. Hinoki / Scientific name: Chamaecyparis obtusa
  4. Cade Wood / Scientific name: Juniperus oxycedrus
  5. Virginia Cedar / Scientific name: Juniperus virginiana

Compositae

  1. Yarrow / Scientific name: Achillea millefolium
  2. German Chamomile / Scientific name: Matricaria recutita
  3. Blue Tansy / Scientific name: Tanacetum annuum
  4. Ylang Ylang / Scientific name: Cananga odorata forma genuina
  5. Katrafay / Scientific name: Cedrelopsis grevei
  6. Myrrh / Scientific name: Commiphora myrrha
  7. Copaiba / Scientific name: Copaifera officinalis
  8. Common Hop / Scientific name: Humulus lupulus
  9. Spikenard / Scientific name: Nardostachys jatamansi
  10. Guava Leaf / Scientific name: Psidium guajava
  11. Five-Flavor-Fruit / Scientific name: Schisandra chinensis
  12. Golden Rod / Scientific name: Solidago canadensis
  13. Ginger / Scientific name: Zingiber officinale

Monoterpene alcohols

Monoterpenol is a mild aromatic molecule with high hydrophilicity and usually has a good smell. Precious roses are rich in citronellol and geraniol.

  1. Common essential oils:
  2. Rosewood / Scientific name: Aniba rosaeodora
  3. Ho Wood / Scientific name: Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. var. linaloolifera
  4. Neroli / Scientific name: Citrus aurantium
  5. Damask Rose / Scientific name: Rosa × damascena
  6. Coriander / Scientific name: Coriandrum sativum
  7. Palmarosa / Scientific name: Cymbopogon martinii var. motia
  8. Japanese Honeysuckle / Scientific name: Lonicera japonica
  9. Tea Tree / Scientific name: Melaleuca alternifolia
  10. Rosalina / Scientific name: Melaleuca ericifolia
  11. Sweet Neem Leaves / Scientific name: Murraya koenigii

Lamiaceae

  1. Sweet Basil / Scientific name: Ocimum basilicum
  2. Sweet Marjoram / Scientific name: Origanum majorana
  3. Peppermint / Scientific name: Mentha × piperita
  4. Monarda / Scientific name: Monarda fistulosa
  5. Geranium / scientific name: Pelargonium graveolens
  6. Thyme, CT Borneol / Scientific name: Thymus satureioides
  7. Thyme, CT Linalool / Scientific name: Thymus vulgaris
  8. Thyme, CT Thujanol / Scientific name: Thymus vulgaris
  9. Thyme, CTGeraniol / Scientific name: Thymus vulgaris

Sesquiterpene alcohols

Sesquiterpenol, the molecule is larger than the monoterpene alcohol (the carbon atom structure of C15), the aroma belongs to the aftertaste, and it is often used as the raw material of high-end perfume. The effect is mild and can be used for a long time.

common essential oils

  1. Amyris / Scientific name: Amyris balsamifera
  2. Agarwood / Scientific name: Aquilaria agallocha
  3. Carrot Seed / Scientific name: Daucus carota
  4. Siam Wood / Scientific name: Fokienia hodginsii
  5. Kunzea / Scientific name: Kunzea ambigua
  6. Houpu Magnolia / Scientific name: Magnolia officinalis
  7. Niaouli, CT Nerolidol / Scientific name: Melaleuca quinquenervia
  8. Araucaria / Scientific name: Neocallitropsis pancheri
  9. Patchouli / Scientific name: Pogostemon cablin
  10. Sandalwood / Scientific name: Santalum album
  11. Indian Valerian / Scientific name: Valeriana wallichii
  12. Vetiver / Scientific name: Vetiveria

Ethers

Ether, known for helping digestion and calming nerves, usually appears in the form of benzene rings in essential oils. Pay attention to the dosage when using it. Pregnant women, infants, and those taking psychotropic drugs should avoid using them.

Common essential oils:

  1. Calamus / Scientific name: Acorus calamus
  2. Tarragon / Scientific name: Artemisia dracunculus
  3. Sweet Fennel / Scientific name: Foeniculum vulgare
  4. Black Tee-Tree / Scientific name: Melaleuca bracteata
  5. Nutmeg / Scientific name: Myristica fragrans
  6. Lotus, Pink / Scientific name: Nelumbo nucifera
  7. Tropical Basil / Scientific name: Ocimum basilicum, CT methyl chavicol
  8. Kewra / Scientific name: Pandanus odoratissimus
  9. Anise / Scientific name: Pimpinella anisum
  10. Anise Ravensara / Scientific name: Anise Ravensara
  11. Sweetsecnted Marigold / Scientific name: Tagetes lucida

Oxides

Oxide, mainly based on 1,8-cineole, has high volatility and drying properties, which dries the skin and mucous membranes, and can clear the respiratory tract. Pay attention to skin irritation.

Common essential oils:

Ginger

  1. Lesser Galangal / Scientific name: Alpinia officinarum
  2. Shell Ginger / Scientific name: Alpinia zerumbet
  3. Green Cardamom / Scientific name: Elettaria cardamomum

Myrtaceae

  1. FragoniaTM / Scientific name: Agonis fragrans
  2. Blue Gum / Scientific name: Eucalyptus globulus
  3. Narrow-Leaved Peppermint / Scientific name: Eucalyptus radiata
  4. Cajeput / Scientific name: Malaleuca leucadendra
  5. Niaouli / Scientific name: Malaleuca quinquenervia
  6. Broombush / Scientific name: Melaleuca uncinata
  7. Myrtle / Scientific name: Myrtus communis

Lamiaceae

  1. Mountain Hyssop / Scientific name: Hyssopus officinalis L. var. decumbens
  2. Spike Lavander / Scientific name: Lavandula latifolia
  3. Rosemary, CT Cineole / Scientific name: Rosmarinus officinalis
  4. Mastic Thyme / Scientific name: Thymus mastichina
  5. Mulan Magnolia / Scientific name: Magnolia liliiflora
  6. Naked Head Immortelle / Scientific name: Helichrysum gumnocephalum
  7. Ravintsara / Scientific name: Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole
  8. Bay / Scientific name: Laurus nobilis

Aldehydes and Aromatic Aldehydes

Aldehyde, usually derived from alcohols, is also easily oxidized, has strong penetrability, and has a distinct odor.

Common essential oils:

Myrtaceae

  1. Lemon Eucalyptus / Scientific name: Eucalyptus citriodora
  2. Eucalyptus Staigeriana / Scientific name: Eucalyptus staigeriana
  3. Lemon-Scented Teatree / Scientific name: Leptospermum petersonii
  4. Lemon Myrtle / Scientific name: Back housia citriodora
  5. Honey Myrtle / Scientific name: Melaleuca teretifolia

Other

  1. Lemon Verbena / Scientific name: Lippia citriodora
  2. Lemon Basil / Scientific name: Ocimum × citriodorum
  3. Melissa / Scientific name: Melissa officinalis
  4. Petitgrain Combava / Scientific name: Citrus hystrix
  5. Petitgrain Lemon / Scientific name: Citrus limonum
  6. Lemongrass / Scientific name: Cymbopogon citratus
  7. Litsea / Scientific name: Litsea cubeba
  8. Perilla / Scientific name: Perilla frutescens
  9. Cassia / Scientific name: Cinnamomum cassia
  10. Indigenous Cinnamon / Scientific name: Cinnamomum osmophloeum
  11. Indian Cssia / Scientific name: Cinnamomum tamala
  12. Cinnamon Bark / Scientific name: Cinnamomum verum
  13. Cumin / scientific name: Cuminum cyminum

Phenols

Phenol contains a benzene ring structure. The benzene ring structure is very stable and not easy to be destroyed. Relatively, it will stay in the body for a long time, and it is not easy to be metabolized. It is highly irritating to the skin, so pay attention to the dosage.

Common essential oils:

  1. Conehead Thyme / Scientific name: Corydothymus capitatus
  2. Thyme, CT Thymol / Scientific name: Thymus zygis
  3. Wild Thyme / Scientific name: Thymus serpyllum
  4. Clove Bud / Scientific name: Eugenia caryophyllus
  5. Black Cumin / Scientific name: Nigella sativa
  6. Clove Basil / Scientific name: Ocimum gratissimum
  7. Holy Basil / Scientific name: Ocimum sanctum
  8. Oregano / scientific name: Origanum compactum
  9. Allspice / Scientific name: Pimenta dioica
  10. Bay St. Thomas / Scientific name: Pimenta racemosa
  11. Indian Borage / Scientific name: Plectranthus amboinicus
  12. Winter Savory / Scientific name: Satureja montana
  13. Ajowan / Scientific name: Trachyspermum ammi

Monoketone

Monoketone has properties that dissolve mucus and promote tissue repair.

Overdose is neurotoxic and may cause miscarriage. Care must be taken when using it, and the concentration must be less than 2%. , Avoid long-term use, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children avoid the use

Common essential oils:

Lamiaceae

  1. Hyssop / Scientific name: Hyssopus officinalis
  2. Lavender Stoeshas / Scientific name: Lavandula stoechas
  3. Horse Mint / Scientific name: Mentha longifolia
  4. Pennyroyal / Scientific name: Mentha pulegium
  5. Spearmint / Scientific name: Mentha spicata
  6. Rosemary, CT Camphor / Scientific name: Rosmarinus officinalis
  7. Rosemary, CT Verbenone / Scientific name: Rosmarinus officinalis
  8. Lavender Sage / Scientific name: Salvia lavandulifolia
  9. Sage / scientific name: Salvia officinalis

Other

  1. Round Leaf Buchu / Scientific name: Agathosma betulina
  2. Chinese Mugwort / Scientific name: Artemisia argyi
  3. Common Mugwort / Scientific name: Artemisia vulgaris
  4. Caraway / Scientific name: Carum carvi
  5. Arizona Cypress / Scientific name: Cupressus arizonica
  6. Camphor Tree / Scientific name: Cinnamomum camphora
  7. Peppermint Eucalyptus / Scientific name: Eucalyptus dives
  8. Blue Ballee / Scientific name: Eucalyptus polybractea
  9. White Verbena / Scientific name: Lippia alba
  10. Santolina / Scientific name: Santolina chamaecyparissus
  11. Mexican Bush Marigold / Scientific name: Tagetes lemmonii
  12. Southern Marigold / Scientific name: Tagetes minuta
  13. Feverfew / Scientific name: Tanacetum parthenium
  14. Tansy / Scientific name: Tanacetum vulgare
  15. Thuya / Scientific name: Thuja occidentalis

Sesquiketone

Common essential oils:

  1. Silver Wormwood / Scientific name: Artemisia ludoviciana
  2. Davana / Scientific name: Artemisia pallens
  3. Cedarwood / Scientific name: Cedrus atlantica
  4. Himalayan Cedar / Scientific name: Cedrus deodara
  5. Chrysanthemum / Scientific name: Chrysanthemum morifolium
  6. Trumeric / Scientific name: Curcuma longa
  7. Zedoary / Scientific name: Curcuma zedoaria
  8. Cypriol / Scientific name: Cyperus scariosus
  9. Bigroot Geranium / Scientific name: Geranium macrorrhizum
  10. Immortelle / Scientific name: Helichrysum italicum
  11. Iris / Scientific name: Iris pallida
  12. Lantana / Scientific name: Lantana camara
  13. Manuka / Scientific name: Leptospermum scoparium
  14. Osmanthus / Scientific name: Osmanthus fragrans
  15. Violet / Scientific name: Viola odorata

Esters

Ester, seeing the familiar esters, think of the function of relaxation, including the real lavender essential oil that everyone is familiar with, which usually has a sweet smell. Let’s take a look at the essential oils in this category!

Common essential oils:

  1. Khella / Scientific name: Ammi visnaga
  2. Roman Chammile / Scientific name: Chamaemelum nobile
  3. Linaloe / scientific name: Bursera delpechiana → cheap ester representative
  4. Petitgrain / Scientific name: Citrus aurantium bigarade
  5. Bergamot / Scientific name: Citrus bergamia
  6. Cape Chamomile / Scientific name: Eriocephalus punctulatus
  7. Paddys River Box / Scientific name: Eucalyptus macarthurii
  8. Ambrette Seed / Scientific name: Hibiscus abelmoschus
  9. True Lavender / Scientific name: Lavandula angustifolia
  10. Lavandin / Scientific name: Lavandula × intermedia
  11. Begamot Mint / Scientific name: Mentha citrata
  12. Red Myrtle / Scientific name: Myrtus communis, CT Myrtenyl acetate
  13. Clary Sage / Scientific name: Salvia sclarea
  14. Spanish Broom / Scientific name: Spartium junceum

Benzene-based Ester

Refers to esters containing benzene rings, which are not easily metabolized by the body.

Common essential oils:

  1. Mimosa / Scientific name: Acacia dealbata
  2. Galanga / Scientific name: Alpinia galanga
  3. Yellow Birch / Scientific name: Betula alleghaniensis
  4. Boronia / Scientific name: Boronia megastigma
  5. Sugandha Kokila / Scientific name: Cinnamomum glaucescens
  6. Petitgrain Mandarin / Scientific name: Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Balady → No wonder it smells so good
  7. Fragrant Wintergreen / Scientific name: Gaultheria gragrantissima
  8. Jasmine / Scientific name: Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum
  9. Sambac / Scientific name: Jasminum sambac
  10. Styrax / Scientific name: Liquidambar orientalis
  11. Magnolia / Scientific name: Michelia alba
  12. Champaca / Scientific name: Michelia champaca
  13. Peru Balsam / Scientific name: Myroxylon balsamum var. pereitae
  14. Narcissus / Scientific name: Narcissus poeticus
  15. Peony / Scientific name: Paeonia suffruticosa
  16. Frangipani / Scientific name: Plumeria rubra
  17. Tuberose / Scientific name: Polianthus tuberosa
  18. Rose de Mai / Scientific name: Rosa centifolia

Lactone and Coumari

Lactone, and Coumarin, more than half of which are Umbelliferae plants, some of which are photosensitive, so be careful when using them.

Common essential oils:

  1. Danggui / Scientific name: Angelica sinensis
  2. Angelica Root, India / Scientific name: Angelica glauca
  3. Celery Seed / Scientific name: Apium graveolens
  4. Cang Zhu / Scientific name: Atractylodes lancea
  5. Shechuangzi / Scientific name: Cnidium monnieri
  6. Tonka Beans / Scientific name: Dipteryx odorata
  7. Asafoetida / Scientific name: Ferula asa-foetida
  8. Elecampane / Scientific name: Inula graveolens
  9. Elecampane Root / Scientific name: Inula helenium
  10. Chuan Xiong / Scientific name: Ligusticum striatum
  11. Lovage / Scientific name: Levisticum officinale
  12. Costus / scientific name: Saussurea costus

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